ARDUINO BMS

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Introduction
2. 3D Renderings
3. Schematics
4. Arduino Code
5. Conclusion / Future changes
6. Download original files

INTRODUCTION

Now this might seem like it was a complete waste of time to try and reinvent the wheel with creating my owm custom BMS solution. You can buy them on ebay or alibaba or banggood for super cheap and it seems like a plug and play solution.

One problem I see with this, at least for me, is that I dont completely trust those cheap BMS system.  I like to buy something that is reasonable as well as trusting that it will safely protect my cells from unbalancing.  Another this is that I like to have flexibility with how I balance my cells or anything else.

Now this is where the custom arduino BMS came into play.  I’ve designed this bms to handle a 4S battery pack so upto 16.8V fully charged and 14.8V nominal.  The balance discharge current can be adjusted by simply replacing the discharge resistor with any value you wish. Just to add this does not have over current or over voltage protection..yet 🙂 I’m currently working on an add on for this so stay tuned for that future update.

Lets get started with all the cool details for this arduino bms.

3D RENDERING

Here i just wanted to show you the 3D rendering images of the final board.  The rendering was created using kicad and its pretty nice actually for an EE cad software.

The heart of this system is the atmega328P running the minicore arduino bootloader[1]. From here you have the 4 balancing passive resistors to the right of the board.  The best part of this project is that you can replace these resistors to any value you want to customize the balance current.

The one thing that this does not have is overvoltage and overcurrent protection but that will be a separate circuit later on ;).

Now we can talk about the main features below in the schematic section.

SCHEMATICS

Below are images of the full schematics for this project:

The first page of the schematic files is a hierarchy block level of the system to help understand how a lot of these subcircuits are linked together.  Below I’ll breakdown all the pages and what exactly they do.

1. Hierarchy Block:

  • This is the overview block level that links the subcircuits on the separate pages.  I normally like to design my projects this way if I have more than 2 subcircuits because its easier to see how things are working together

2. Power Supply

  • This section is just the power supply section to power the arduino.  This is a high differential buck converter.  The input voltage can go up to 36V and output down to 1.8V with an active quiescent current of only 190uA.  Now the most important part is the quiescent current because we are trying to eliminate any wasted current since this is for a battery operated system and we do not want to drain the batteries faster than needed.

3. MCU

  • The MCU page has the Atmega328P and all the corresponding IO related to it.  Im using A0-A3 to measure the batteries via a resistor divider
  • This page also includes the external reference voltage used instead of the built in 1.1V from the atmega328p. Its a 1.25V external voltage reference that has a better tolerance at a range of temperatures.

4. Balancing Circuit

  • This page has the balacing circuit which is incharge of discharging the battery cell that has a higher potentional.  The heart of this is a bidirectional N-channel mosfet that allows current to flow in both directional either during discharge or during charging.

5. Connectors

  • This page has the power pin connectors and the BMS pads that connectors to the lithium cells.

Now that we’ve gone through the schematic lets go into the second most important part and that is the arduino code.

ARDUINO CODE

Now probably the second most important part is the arduino code that will control the mosfets triggering the discharge when a preset voltage difference is hit.

#include "Adafruit_SSD1306.h"

/* Revision: A9
 * Written by: Steven Guzman
 * Date: 7/10/2018
 * Description: This is a customizable BMS system for a 4
 *              cell lithium ion pack.
 */

#include "Wire.h"
#include "avr/wdt.h"<span id="mce_SELREST_start" style="overflow:hidden;line-height:0;"></span>

#define OLED_RESET 4
Adafruit_SSD1306 display(OLED_RESET);

#define NUMFLAKES 10
#define XPOS 0
#define YPOS 1
#define DELTAY 2

//////////////////////////////////////////////
// This variable is used for checking on
// whether the OLED screen is attached or not
//////////////////////////////////////////////
int check = LOW;

//////////////////////////////////////////////
// Sampling number for analog read values.
// Will use this sample size to calculate a
// better estimation of the analog value
//////////////////////////////////////////////
int samples = 100;

//////////////////////////////////////////////
// This is the max difference that the cells
// can achieve in respect to each other
//////////////////////////////////////////////
float tol = 0.03;

//////////////////////////////////////////////
// To temporaly store analog values from the
// cell voltages to average out later with
// the number of samples taken
//////////////////////////////////////////////
float temp_cell[4];

//////////////////////////////////////////////
// Float array to store unconverted cell values
//////////////////////////////////////////////
float cell[4];

//////////////////////////////////////////////
// Variable array to store converted voltage
// values for cell measurement
//////////////////////////////////////////////
float B[4];

//////////////////////////////////////////////
// Variable array to store voltage differences
// between cells
//////////////////////////////////////////////
float diff[4];

/////////////////////////////////////////////////
// Variable used for digital output
// signals
/////////////////////////////////////////////////
int BAT[4];

/////////////////////////////////////////////////
// Variable used for storing the cell pack
/////////////////////////////////////////////////
float PACK = 0.000;

/////////////////////////////////////////////////
// Scaling factor used for converting
// the scaled down analogread values to there
// actual values from the voltage divider
/////////////////////////////////////////////////
float scale0 = 0.25;   // 10k/(30k + 10k)
float scale1 = 0.125;  // 10k/(69.8k + 10k)
float scale2 = 0.083;  // 10k/(110k + 10K)
float scale3 = 0.0625; // 10k/(150k + 10k)

#if (SSD1306_LCDHEIGHT != 32)
#error("Height incorrect, please fix Adafruit_SSD1306.h!");
#endif

void setup()
{

  Serial.begin(9600);
  analogReference(EXTERNAL); // Configure reference voltage for
                             // external 1.25V

  //////////////////////////////////////////////
  // After switching to external reference you
  // need to read a value a couple times before
  // the reference has stabalized.
  //////////////////////////////////////////////
  analogRead(A0);
  analogRead(A0);
  analogRead(A0);
  delay(20);

  // Setup up watchdog timer to reset
  // after 4 seconds
  wdt_enable(WDTO_4S);

  ///////////////////////////////////////////////
  // Variables to set the digital output
  // pins 1-4
  ///////////////////////////////////////////////
  BAT[0] = 5;
  BAT[1] = 6;
  BAT[2] = 7;
  BAT[3] = 8;

  ///////////////////////////////////////////////
  // Setting digital pins to output configuration
  ///////////////////////////////////////////////
  pinMode(BAT[0], OUTPUT);
  pinMode(BAT[1], OUTPUT);
  pinMode(BAT[2], OUTPUT);
  pinMode(BAT[3], OUTPUT);

  ///////////////////////////////////////////////
  // Sets the digital outputs to an initial low
  // state
  ///////////////////////////////////////////////

  digitalWrite(BAT[0],LOW);
  digitalWrite(BAT[1],LOW);
  digitalWrite(BAT[2],LOW);
  digitalWrite(BAT[3],LOW);

}

void loop()
{

  Wire.requestFrom(0x3C, 1); // Pings OLED screen

  ///////////////////////////////////////////////
  // If OLED pings back and check statement
  // equals 1, then initiate the OLED screen
  // and reset the check value to 0 so it will
  // not continue to re-initiate. It needs to
  // initiate another request one last time
  ///////////////////////////////////////////////
  if (Wire.available() &amp;&amp; check == HIGH )
  {
    display.begin(SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC, 0x3C);
    check = 0;
    Wire.requestFrom(0x3C, 1);
  }
  if ( Wire.available() &amp;&amp; check == LOW)
  {
    // Leave blank
  }
  else if (!Wire.available())
  {
    check = 1;
  }

  ///////////////////////////////////////////////
  // Sets the temp variable array back to zero
  ///////////////////////////////////////////////
  for (int x = 0; x &lt;4; x++)
  {
    temp_cell[x] = 0.00;
    diff[x] = 0.00;
    cell[x] = 0.00;
  }
  ///////////////////////////////////////////////
  // For loop used to record battery cell voltage
  // information and used later to average out
  // the readings
  ///////////////////////////////////////////////
  delay(100);

  ////////////////////////////////////////////////
  // Using true RMS calculation for computing a
  // better average estimate for multiple samples.
  ////////////////////////////////////////////////
  for (int i = 0; i &lt; samples; i++)
  {
    temp_cell[0] = temp_cell[0] + sq((analogRead(A0)/scale0)* (1.249 / 1024));
    delay(1);
    temp_cell[1] = temp_cell[1] + sq((analogRead(A1)/scale1) * (1.249 / 1024));
    delay(1);
    temp_cell[2] = temp_cell[2] + sq((analogRead(A2)/scale2) * (1.249 / 1024));
    delay(1);
    temp_cell[3] = temp_cell[3] + sq((analogRead(A3)/scale3) * (1.249 / 1024));
    delay(1);
  }
  cell[0] = sqrt(temp_cell[0] / samples);
  cell[1] = sqrt(temp_cell[1] / samples);
  cell[2] = sqrt(temp_cell[2] / samples);
  cell[3] = sqrt(temp_cell[3] / samples);

  ////////////////////////////////////////////////
  // Scale up the cell values and then convert to
  // to voltage values
  ////////////////////////////////////////////////
  B[0] = (cell[0]);
  B[1] = ((cell[1] - cell[0]));
  B[2] = ((cell[2] - cell[1] ));
  B[3] = ((cell[3] - cell[2] ));
  PACK = B[3] + B[2] + B[1] + B[0];

  ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
  // Compares each cell voltage to each other and then finds the
  // lowest cell value.  Then it stores the difference between the
  // lowest cell and the remaining cells for comparison
  ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
  if ( (B[0] &lt;= B[1]) &amp;&amp; (B[0] &lt;= B[2]) &amp;&amp; (B[0] &lt;= B[3]))
  {
  diff[1] = B[1] - B[0];
  diff[2] = B[2] - B[0];
  diff[3] = B[3] - B[0];
  }
  else if ((B[1] &lt;= B[0]) &amp;&amp; (B[1] &lt;= B[2]) &amp;&amp; (B[1] &lt;= B[3]))
  {
  diff[0] = B[0] - B[1];
  diff[2] = B[2] - B[1];
  diff[3] = B[3] - B[1];
  }
  else if ((B[2] &lt;= B[0]) &amp;&amp; (B[2] &lt;= B[1]) &amp;&amp; (B[2] &lt;= B[3]))
  {
  diff[0] = B[0] - B[2];
  diff[1] = B[1] - B[2];
  diff[3] = B[3] - B[2];
  }
  else
  {
  diff[0] = B[0] - B[3];
  diff[1] = B[1] - B[3];
  diff[2] = B[2] - B[3];
  }

  //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
  // It enables the balancing protocol for a given cell that has a
  // greater voltage difference from the lowest cell and the set
  // tolerance.
  //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
  delay(1);
  for ( int x = 0; x  tol )
    {
      digitalWrite(BAT[x], HIGH);
      delay(1);
    }
    else
    {
      digitalWrite(BAT[x], LOW);
      delay(1);
    }
    delay(1);
  }

  // text display tests
  display.setTextSize(1);
  display.setTextColor(WHITE);
  display.setCursor(0,0);
  display.print(&quot;V1:&quot;);
  display.print(B[0]);
  display.println(&quot;V&quot;);
  display.print(&quot;V2:&quot;);
  display.print(B[1]);
  display.println(&quot;V&quot;);
  display.print(&quot;V3:&quot;);
  display.print(B[2]);
  display.println(&quot;V&quot;);
  display.print(&quot;V4:&quot;);
  display.print(B[3]);
  display.println(&quot;V&quot;);

  display.setCursor(70,0);
  display.print(&quot;VP:&quot;);
  display.print(PACK);
  display.print(&quot;V&quot;);

  display.setCursor(70,8);
  display.print(&quot;Config:&quot;);
  display.print(&quot;4S&quot;);
  display.display();
  delay(1);
  display.clearDisplay();
  wdt_reset();
}

Lets break down this code in order to understand my thought process behind this.arduino_code_sampling_section

  1. The samples variable is used to create an average sampling of the battery cells to eliminate any noise issues.  The averaging technique I used in this project is a little different than most but I will explain later on
  2. The next variable is the tol variable.  This variable is the maximum voltage different between the lowest cell and the rest of the cells in the 4S pack.  Currently its set to a maximum of 30mV difference but this can be set to a minimum of 10mV because of the 8-bit adc on the arduino.

arduino_code_voltage_divider_section

  1. Here is the scaling factor for the adc from the cell measurements.  We have different values because in order to get the best accuracy measuring in reference to ground, different values were needed for measuring cell 1 which has a max of 4.2V and cell 4 which measures a max of 16.8V.

arduino_code_oled_section

  1. This portion of the code is mainly for the OLED screen.  It allows for the screen to be removed and re attached without having to reset the arduino.  Before you had to initialize it in the setup but with this loop it is initialized in the main loop when it detects the screen.

arduino_code_average_section

  1. Now this section is averaging the adc values from all 4 cells to get a best measurement of the cell voltage values.  Instead of using the traditional sample 25 and take the average, I’m using a true RMS calculation that will give you a slightly better voltage measurement that just taking the average.  It will be at a closer measurement to your multimeter than using average sample.

 

CONCLUSION / ISSUES

Here is the final PCB:

I’m pretty excited to do more testing on this and I will post my technical review later on that includes current consumption, maybe a mini manual on how to use it or change values for your own build.

Again this does not include an over voltage or over current protection circuit but I decided to make that a separate board with its own controller in order to make the board as small as I could and isolate the two circuits as a redundancy.  I’m still making some tweaks and might make another revision but all in all I’m very happy about it.

Some current issues that I know off.

  1. You might have to calibrate with a known good multimeter.  The arduinos ADC has some weird issues with analogPin A2 measuring higher than the rest.  I added a calibration value in the code to help with that.

 

DOWNLOAD ORIGINAL FILES

Download here.

For the Bill of Materials, I’ve embedded the datasheets for some of the major components in case you wondered why the file is larger than it should.

 

Footnotes

1. Minicore bootloader

Project – GRBL Controller Board

Donations

Anything would help really. My goal is to have this website ad free and so you can enjoy my content without having to look at ads. Thank you

$1.00

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Introduction
2. Bill of Materials
3. Schematic
4. 3D Redering
5. Final Thoughts
6. Download Original files

INTRODUCTION

With all the low cost CNC machines out in the market, there is also an abundant of GRBL shields for the arduino platform. Like always, I’m always looking to for ways to customize and improve whats in the market.

What I’ve created is a slightly better GRBL controller board for low cost CNC machines. This uses the Arduino Nano instead of the Uno as this allowed for more flexibility on the size of the board. It also integrates the relay switch for the spindle with an integrated flywheel diode to avoid over voltage spikes when the spindle is first turned on.

Below I’ll discuss in more detail along with the files you need to create this board.

BILL OF MATERIALS

Click here to download the bill of materials

SCHEMATIC

Here in the schematic you can see a couple of items that are different from the traditional ebay/amazon grbl shields. First of all this is not a shield per say but more of a standalone controller board.

  • Since the capacitors that are used to filter the stepper drivers are 35V rated, I’ve limited the input voltage to 24V
  • I’ve added a TVS diode at the power input that protects from over voltage spikes.
  • Used better output connectors for the stepper motor drivers
  • Added 0.1uF capacitor for the probe pin for autoleveling
  • Added x3 5V rail connectors
    • One thing to add is that these connectors are taking power from the USB port and should not be loaded more than 0.2A combined
    • I added these for low current 5V noctua fans to cool the stepper drivers
  • Added relay control on the main board to eliminate adding external relay switch for the spindle.
    • some newer versions of the grbl software, I believe v1.1 has the spindle pin and z-axis switch so thats why I included the option to switch between the two
    • I believe you can switch this back in the firmware of the grbl settings. But none the less the option is there
  • The relay controller also includes a 1000uF and a flywheel diode to prevent voltage spikes on turn-on

3D RENDERING

Here is a 3D Rendering from Kicad of the board. I’ve added this rendering because I thought it looked really cool.
FINAL THOUGHTS

Here is a picture of the final board below:

Below is the board fully soldered and it works amazing. I will add some images of the quality of boards my machine makes with the new controller board.

Future revisions of the board I will increase the 5V rail to supply up to 1A of current for high current draw fans and order accessory’s. Also, I will try to route out the limit switch pins. This will require me to remove the z-limit switch pin that connects to the spindle control but that should not be an issue.

If you have any comments or suggests please feel free to send them my way.

Thank you!!

Download original files here.

I have about 8 extra PCB boards that I’d be willing to sell. Let me know in the comments below if that’s something you’d like to buy

Project – DC Power and Efficiency Meter

Donations

Anything would help really. My goal is to have this website ad free and so you can enjoy my content without having to look at ads. Thank you

$1.00

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Introduction
2. Bill of Materials
3. Schematic
4. Code
5. ME Cad design
6. Final Thoughts
7. Download Original files

 

 INTRODUCTION

This is a fun little project that actually took me awhile to put together.  What makes this project interesting and useful is that it will display your voltage, current, and power of any device you plug it into.  What also makes this project useful is that it will calculate the efficiency of your device for example a dc dc converter.

The heart of this project is two INA219 high side current sensors from Texas Instruments.  With this sensor you can measure up to 26V DC and up to +/-3.2A with a 0.1ohm shunt resistor (if you swap out the shunt with a 0.01ohm shunt you can measure up to +/-32A)

BILL OF MATERIALS

Click Here for bill of materials

BLOCK DIAGRAM

Here you can see a block diagram showing how I connected the different boards to create this project. Since I used my CNC machine to create the boards, it’s always much easier to separate the circuits into different boards for routing.

The main board consist of an arduino pro mini to keep the footprint as small as I can and also host a 5V boost converter being power from the 18650 lithium ion battery.  In order to charge the battery without having to remove it from the enclosure, I decided to add a lithium ion charger board that connects in parallel with the battery.  Its powered by a 5V USB mini connector and can be bought on amazon.

The second board host x2 INA219 high side I2C current, voltage, and power sensor by Texas Instrument.  This IC is an amazing little thing because it takes a lot of the number crunching away from the Arduino and just sends the data over I2C that you need.

The final piece of this is the I2C liquidcrystal display for the arduino.  I used this library here for the display.  Make sure you connect the display and run an i2c address scanner on the examples for arduino because sometimes the displays have a different address than the default one listed.

SCHEMATIC

CODE

/*
 * Name: Steven Guzman
 * Date: 2018/03/18
 * Description: This is a DC power meter that measures input and output
 *              power and calculates the efficiency of the system.
 *              It can also measure voltage and current of one or two
 *              voltage sources
*/
#include 
#include 
#include 

LiquidCrystal_I2C lcd(0x3F,20,4); // Set the LCD address

/*
 * Below are the array values to store the measurements
 * and then used to convert float to string
 */
char float_volt1[8];  // voltage 1 array
char batt0[21];
char float_volt2[8];  // voltage 2 array
char batt1[21];
char float_current1[8]; // current 1 array
char curr1[21];
char float_current2[8]; // current 1 array
char curr2[21];
char float_eff[8];  // efficiency variable array
char line6[21];
char float_batt[6]; // battery voltage array
char line5[21];

// Analog sampling number
int sample = 20;

// Inialize current sensors.
// ina219_A default address is 0x40
Adafruit_INA219 ina219_A;
Adafruit_INA219 ina219_B(0x43);

// Variables to store current sensor data
float busvoltage1 = 0;
float busvoltage2 = 0;
float current_mA1 = 0;
float current_mA2 = 0;

float batt = 0.00;

void setup()
{
  Serial.begin(115200);
  while(!Serial)
  {
    delay(1);
  }

  ina219_A.begin();
  ina219_B.begin();

  lcd.init();
  lcd.init();
  lcd.backlight();

}

void loop()
{
  float xbat = 0.00;

  for(int x=0;x<sample;x++)
  {
    batt = analogRead(A0);
    xbat = xbat + batt;
  }
  // Read voltage levels from the voltage address
  // of the IN219 on both ICs
  busvoltage1 = ina219_B.getBusVoltage_V();
  busvoltage2 = ina219_A.getBusVoltage_V();

  // Read current levels from the current address
  // of the IN219 on both ICs
  current_mA1 = ina219_B.getCurrent_mA();
  current_mA2 = ina219_A.getCurrent_mA();

  // Average out the analog measurements
  // for the lithum ion battery voltage
  // sensing
  xbat = xbat/sample;
  float battery = xbat * (5.00/1024);
  dtostrf(battery,4,2,float_batt);
  sprintf(line5, "Battery:%-5s",float_batt);
  char temp3[] = "V";
  strcat(line5,temp3);

  // Convert float values into an char array to
  // better update on the lcd screen without
  // having to use the lcd.clear function
  dtostrf(busvoltage1,4,2,float_volt1);
  sprintf(batt0, "V1:%-5s",float_volt1);
  char temp2[] = "V";
  strcat(batt0, temp2);

  dtostrf(busvoltage2,4,2,float_volt2);
  sprintf(batt1, "V2:%-5s",float_volt2);
  char temp1[] = "V";
  strcat(batt1, temp1);

  // Convert mA to A readings
  float C1 = current_mA1/1000;
  float C2 = current_mA2/1000;

  dtostrf(C1,4,2,float_current1);
  sprintf(curr1, "C1:%-5s",float_current1);
  char temp4[] = "A";
  strcat(curr1, temp4);

  dtostrf(C2,4,2,float_current2);
  sprintf(curr2, "C2:%-5s",float_current2);
  char temp5[] = "A";
  strcat(curr2, temp5);

  float power1 = busvoltage1 * C1;
  float power2 = busvoltage2 * C2;

  float eff = (power2/power1)*100;

  dtostrf(eff,5,2,float_eff);
  sprintf(line6, "Efficiency:%-7s",float_eff);

  /*
   * Display on LCD screen all the values.
   * I used char arrays to update the values on the
   * screen.  Using the lcd.clear caused flickering
   * and was annoying.  With char array you can include
   * the units and it will update properly and not
   * overright the units.
   */
  lcd.setCursor(0,0);
  lcd.print(batt0);

  lcd.setCursor(11,0);
  lcd.print(batt1);

  lcd.setCursor(0,1);
  lcd.print(curr1);

  lcd.setCursor(11,1);
  lcd.print(curr2);

  lcd.setCursor(0,2);
  lcd.print(line6);

  lcd.setCursor(0,3);
  lcd.print(line5);

  delay(500);

}

There might be some issues with how wordpress displays the arduino code but I attached the original files at the end this tutorial.

As mentioned before, the libraries used here I obtained from other sources:

  1. Liquid crystal display library
  2. INA219 adafruit library

ME CAD DESIGN

I designed the enclosure in fusion 360 and printed the both with matterhackers pro series PETG red.  I used a monoprice maker select v2 to print this enclosure.

Here is the step file for the enclosure

FINAL THOUGHTS

This was one of my favorite projects yet because the design alone makes me feel accomplished learning everything on my own.  I still feel like I can make some upgrades to how I mount the internals and to be honest, I really rushed this part because I wanted to finish it.

Some upgrades I’m considering is using the arduinos internal 1.1V reference with a voltage divider to measure the battery voltage because it wasn’t as accurate as I wanted it to be.

Thank you for visiting and reading my project. if you have any questions or comments or suggestions please don’t hesitate to ask.

DOWNLOAD ORIGINAL FILES 

Original files

Electronics: FTDI USB TO UART

Donations

Anything would help really. My goal is to have this website ad free and so you can enjoy my content without having to look at ads. Thank you

$1.00

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Introduction
2. Bill of Materials
3. Schematic
4. Oshpark
5. Final Thoughts
6. Download Original files

INTRODUCTION

With the Arduino mini, there is a need for a USB to UART controller to upload your sketches and this could also be used for the ESP8266.

This project is inspired and based off the Sparkfun’s FT231X breakout board design.  I’ve created this project because 1. I like designing and soldering electronics 2. Try to create a cheaper alternative to the popular FT232RL and also add 1 or 2 features to the current FT231X breakout board.

BILL OF MATERIALS

For the bill of materials, its pretty straight forward.  I’ve attached links to digikey for each component as I find them easier to order from but you could also get the parts from arrow or mouser as well.

 

 

Component Description Part number Quantity Link
47pF, 0603, 50V C1608C0G1H470J080AA 2 Digikey
0.1uF, 0603, 25V CGA3E2X7R1E104K080AA 4 Digikey
10uF, 0805, 6.3V TCJN106M006R0250 1 Digikey
Micro B Connector 10118192-0001LF 1 Digikey
6-pin Header M20-7910642R 1 Digikey
N-Channel FET BSS84-FDICT-ND 1 Digikey
27 ohm, 1206 RC1206JR-0727RL 2 Digikey
10k, 0603 RT0603DRD0710KL 2 Digikey
FT231X, SSOP-20 FT231XS-U 1 Digikey

SCHEMATIC

Below I’ve attached an image of the schematic but i’ve also attached the original kicad files and a PDF version of the schematic at the end of the post.

OSHPARK

If you feel like you want to get this board made, I’ve attached a link to my oshpark project.  With oshpark, I find they make great quality boards at a great price for small sized boards.

Order from OSH Park

FINAL THOUGHTS

I know this was a short post and project but I found it important to share another option for those’s who want to find a cheaper solution and want to learn along the way.  You can find a lot cheaper solutions on amazon that are china made but i’ve read stories in some cases that they were not genuine FT232RL ICs.  If you wish to build your own, its very easy and rewarding at the same time.

In the next revision I will add LEDS for TX and RX indication as for this version I eliminated to save some cost and space.

Hope you enjoyed this post, THANK YOU 🙂

DOWNLOAD ORIGINAL FILES

https://app.box.com/s/50ap9obq89ucydbqqn54tye6ae3xiu34

 

CNC: CNC CONTROL BOX

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SUMMARY

1. Introduction
2. Bill of Materials
3. Block Diagram
4. Schematics/CAD DESIGN
5. Assembly
6. Final Thoughts/ Improvements
7. Download Original Files

 

INTRODUCTION

Arduino and the implementation of GRBL has allow for amazing things to be created.  One of those things are low cost CNC machines that enable us to create anything we want.

I bought myself a low cost CNC engraver from amazon and after modifying it, it has been one of my best investments because as en electrical engineer I can create PCB boards to test my designs here at home and verify before getting them sent out. One problem I usually have is that I use my laptop to run the gcode software and my laptop is really big and sometimes a hassle to keep on my desk.

My solution was to create this project and make a standalone CNC machine controller to run the gcode software in a compact package.  I tried fiddling around with using a raspberry pi 2 as my main PC but I’m still a beginner with raspberry pi’s and I had issues getting the settings right.  My next option was to use a windows based machine and luckily I found just the solution.

In this tutorial I will explain how I put this together and what improvements could be made.

BILL OF MATERIALS

Component Quantity Link
Windows computer stick 1 Amazon
Wireless keyboard/mouse 1 Amazon
DIY HDMI male adapter angled 1 Adafruit
DIY HDMI female adapter 1 Adafruit
DIY HDMI Ribbon cable 20cm 1 Adafruit
3.5 inch Screen 1 Amazon
Left angled micro usb cable 1 Amazon
Top angled usb 3.0 extension 1 Amazon
USB Board
USB Female Connector 2 Sparkfun
5VWM TVS Diode 1 Digikey
0.1uF 50V X7R 1206 1 Digikey
1uF 25V X7R 0805 1 Digikey
10uF 16V X5R 0805 1 Digikey
100 OHM 0.1% 1/8W 0805 2 Digikey
TERM BLOCK 5MM 2POS 2 Digikey

BLOCK DIAGRAM

Visio_blog - block diagram

Here is the block diagram for how this project is wired.  With the exception of the enclosure itself and the usb power board, everything was bought ready to go.  I’ve added a fan as a just in case because the computer stick does generate some heat so the fan will prevent the system from over heating but so far it does not seem to be an issue with heat and therefore is an option.

The 5V and 12V supply are coming from my 24V power supply that powers my Arduino GRBL shield.  What I did was use two step down converters 1) For 5V step down and 2) For 12V step down.  I realized this might not be idle but it is my first revision of this project.

SCHEMATICS/ CAD DESIGN

The only schematics I have is for the USB power board and I created that using Kicad.  The board was basic, since both the screen and the windows computer stick ran on 5V via micro USB, I needed to distribute power from one source into two loads.  To add some safety, I did add a TVS 5VWM diode to prevent over voltage spikes from destroying the devices along with some filtering capacitors.

Electronics_pdf - cnc usb power board-1

If its a little blurry don’t worry because all original files will be included in a download link at the end.

Now for the enclosure, I designed it using Fusion 360.  Honestly, I am not a Mechanical engineer/Designer so this was my first attempt at designing something in a CAD software.  Mine you its really just a box but Fusion 360 makes it really easy to design for someone who had no prior experience.

I designed this in two pieces:

  1. The bottom portion of the enclosure:CAD_pdf - Enclosure Drawings-1
  2. The Lid for the enclosure:CAD_pdf - Lid Drawings-1

For material used for making this enclosure, I used my Maker Select V2 3D printer with PETG filament for the temperature resistance and flexibility.

I will include the STL files so you guys can 3D print this yourself.

ASSEMBLY

Now for the fun part, putting this thing together and hoping everything works without the magic white smoke lol jk.  This was actually very easy to put together though there were a couple of design hick ups.

Since I wanted to get the print out as fast as possible, I sacrificed quality of the print which is why it looks the way it does but its very function.

As I mentioned I did have some design issues after I was putting this thing together.  If you look at image 3, you can see that the usb power board is tilted up and thats because I placed the cooling fan to close.  The board was able to fit but I could not connect anything because the fan was blocking the connectors.

I decided to use hot glue to hold everything down because it wouldn’t be a DIY project if hot glue wasn’t involved.

In image 4, you can see I used some basic terminal block connectors to attach my 5V and 12V supply.  You can also see the USB port to connect the arduino grbl controller board.

FINAL THOUGHTS/IMPROVEMENTS

Overall I enjoyed putting this project together.  It’s made my project efficiency increase dramatically because I don’t have to take it out and set it up every time I want to make a board.

With anything we do, there’s always room for improvements.  In a future version of this project I plan to improve the way I connect my external 5V and 12V supply instead of using the terminal blocks.  I might possibly use some type of molex connector that can easily detach.  To reduce the amount of external connectors, I could switch out the 12V fan with a 5V fan and run it with only one step down converter.  I’m going to also move the fan placement so that I do not have to angle the usb power board.

DOWNLOAD ORIGINAL FILES

Bill of Materials

KiCad files

3D STL files

PDF Documents

Thank you for visiting and I hope you enjoyed this project.

Please leave a comment and let me know about your thoughts, improvements or any issues you see with this post.  All comments are welcomed 🙂